European Journal of Histochemistry <h3>The Proceedings of the <a href=""><strong>Italian Society for the Study of Connective Tissues (SISC) Meeting, Pavia, 26-27 October 2018</strong></a> are now available.</h3> PAGEPress Scientific Publications, Pavia, Italy en-US European Journal of Histochemistry 1121-760X <p><strong>PAGEPress</strong> has chosen to apply the&nbsp;<a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><strong>Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial 4.0 International License</strong></a>&nbsp;(CC BY-NC 4.0) to all manuscripts to be published.<br><br> An Open Access Publication is one that meets the following two conditions:</p> <ol> <li>the author(s) and copyright holder(s) grant(s) to all users a free, irrevocable, worldwide, perpetual right of access to, and a license to copy, use, distribute, transmit and display the work publicly and to make and distribute derivative works, in any digital medium for any responsible purpose, subject to proper attribution of authorship, as well as the right to make small numbers of printed copies for their personal use.</li> <li>a complete version of the work and all supplemental materials, including a copy of the permission as stated above, in a suitable standard electronic format is deposited immediately upon initial publication in at least one online repository that is supported by an academic institution, scholarly society, government agency, or other well-established organization that seeks to enable open access, unrestricted distribution, interoperability, and long-term archiving.</li> </ol> <p>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:</p> <ol> <li>Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li> <li>Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li> <li>Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.</li> </ol> Cytoplasmic lattices are not linked to mouse 2-cell embryos developmental arrest <p>Cytoplasmic lattices are important regulators of oocyte maturation. They store components of the protein synthesis machinery including ribosomes and, among others, they are involved in the regulation of microtubule dynamics in both mouse and human. Cytoplasmic lattices undergo dramatic reorganizations at crucial stages of oocyte maturation, where they are abundantly present in the cytoplasm of developmentally competent oocytes named SN (Surrounded Nucleolus) while they are rare in the cytoplasm of 2-cell stage-arresting NSN (Not Surrounded Nucleolus) oocytes, suggestive of a requirement of cytoplasmic lattices for development past the 2-cell stage. Here, to elucidate this requirement, 2-cell mouse embryos derived from SN and NSN oocytes were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. Contrary to what had been proposed hitherto, cytoplasmic lattices are present in 2-cell embryos derived not only from SN, but also from NSN oocytes, irrespective of the embryo production system (intra cytoplasmic sperm injection, parthenogenesis). Hence our conclusion that cytoplasmic lattices do not count among the factor(s) responsible for the embryo arrest at this crucial stage of development.</p> Marianna Longo Michele Boiani CarloAlberto Redi Manuela Monti ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-09-24 2018-09-24 62 4 10.4081/ejh.2018.2972 Regenerative potential of the Bichat fat pad determined by the quantification of multilineage differentiating stress enduring cells <p>Published studies regarding Bichat fat pad focused, quite exclusively, on the implant of this adipose depot for different facial portions reconstruction. The regenerative components of Bichat fat pad were poorly investigated. The present study aimed to describe by an ultrastructural approach the Bichat fat pad, providing novel data at the ultrastructural and cellular level. This data sets improve the knowledge about the usefulness of the Bichat fat pad in regenerative and reconstructive surgery. Bichat fat pads were harvested form eight patients subjected to maxillofacial, dental and aesthetic surgeries. Biopsies were used for the isolation of mesenchymal cell compartment and for ultrastructural analysis. Respectively, Bichat fat pads were either digested and placed in culture for the characterization of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) or, were fixed in glutaraldehyde 2% and processed for transmission or scanning electron microscopy. Collected data showed very interesting features regarding the cellular composition of the Bichat fat pad and, in particular, experiments aimed to characterized the MSCs showed the presence of a sub-population of MSCs characterized by the expression of specific markers that allow to classify them as multilineage differentiating stress enduring cells. &nbsp;This data set allows to collect novel information about regenerative potential of Bichat fat pad that could explain the success of its employment in reconstructive and regenerative medicine.</p> Giamaica Conti Dario Bertossi Elena Dai Prè Chiara Cavallini Maria Teresa Scupoli Giulia Ricciardi Pierpaolo Parnigotto Yves Saban Andrea Sbarbati Pierfrancesco Nocini ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-23 2018-10-23 62 4 10.4081/ejh.2018.2900 Overexpression of kynurenic acid and 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid after rat traumatic brain injury <p>Using an immunohistochemical technique, we have studied the distribution of kynuneric acid (KYNA) and 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid (3-HAA) in a rat brain injury model (trauma). The study was carried out inducing a cerebral ablation of the frontal motor cortex. Two mouse monoclonal specific antibodies previously developed by our group directed against KYNA and 3-HAA were used. In control animals (sham-operated), the expression of both KYNA and 3-HAA was not observed. In animals in which the ablation was performed, the highest number of immunoreactive cells containing KYNA or 3-HAA was observed in the region surrounding the lesion and the number of these cells decreased moving away from the lesion. KYNA and 3-HAA were also observed in the white matter (ipsilateral side) located close to the injured region and in some cells placed in the white matter of the contralateral side. The distribution of KYNA and 3-HAA perfectly matched with the peripheral injured regions. The results found were identical independently of the perfusion date of animals (17, 30 or 54 days after brain injury). For the first time, the presence of KYNA and 3-HAA has been described in a rat trauma model. Moreover, by using a double immunocytochemistry protocol, it has been demonstrated that both metabolites were located in astrocytes. The findings observed suggest that, in cerebral trauma, KYNA and 3-HAA are involved in tissue damage and that these compounds could act, respectively, as a neuroprotector and a neurotoxic. This means that, in trauma, a counterbalance occurs and that a regulation of the indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase (IDO) pathway could be required after a brain injury in order to decrease the deleterious effects of ending metabolites (the neurotoxic picolinic acid). Moreover, the localization of KYNA and 3-HAA in the contralateral side of the lesion suggests that the IDO pathway is also involved in the sprouting and pathfinding that follows a traumatic brain injury.</p> Arturo Mangas Margarita Heredia Adelaida Riolobos Antonio de la Fuente José María Criado Javier Yajeya Michel Geffard Rafael Coveñas ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-11-14 2018-11-14 62 4 10.4081/ejh.2018.2985 Localization of CGRP and VEGF mRNAs in the mouse superior cervical ganglion during pre- and postnatal development <p>The neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) mediates inflammation and head pain by influencing the functional vascular blood supply. CGRP is a well-characterized mediator of receptor-regulated neurotransmitter release. However, knowledge regarding the role of CGRP during the development of the superior cervical ganglion (SCG) is limited. In the present study, we observed the localization of CGRP and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-A) mRNAs during prenatal development at embryonic day 14.5 (E14.5), E17.5 and postnatal day 1 (P1) using <em>in situ</em> hybridization. The antisense probe for CGRP was detected by <em>in situ</em> hybridization at E14.5, E17.5, and P1, and the highest levels were detected at E17.5. In contrast, the antisense probe for VEGF-A was detected by <em>in situ </em>hybridization in gradually increasing intensity from E14.5 to P1. The differences in the expression of these two markers revealed specific characteristics related to CGRP concentration and release compared to those of VEGF-A during development. The correlation between CGRP and VEGF-A may influence functional stress and the vascular blood supply during prenatal and postnatal development.</p> Kazuyuki Mitsuoka Yoko Miwa Takeshi Kikutani Iwao Sato ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-11-22 2018-11-22 62 4 10.4081/ejh.2018.2976 Dynamic of lipid droplets and gene expression in response to β-aminoisobutyric acid treatment on 3T3-L1 cells <p>Research on adipobiology has recognized the browning process of white adipocytes as a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of obesity and related morbidities. Physical exercise stimulates the secretion of myokines, such as b-aminoisobutyric acid (BAIBA), which in turn promotes adaptive thermogenesis. White adipocyte conversion to brown cells involves dynamic changes in lipid droplet (LD) dimension and in the transcription of brown-specific marker genes. This study analyzes the effect of different doses of BAIBA and at different days of development on 3T3-L1 cells by evaluating morphological changes in LDs and the expression of browning gene markers. Results suggested that the highest concentration of BAIBA after 4 days of differentiation produced the most significant effects. The number of LDs per cell increased in comparison to control cells, whereas the surface area significantly decreased. Brown adipocyte markers were up-regulated, but the effect of treatment was lost at 10 days of differentiation. The thermogenic program induced by BAIBA may reflect a rapid adaptation of adipose tissue to physical exercise. This connection stresses the beneficial impact of physical exercise on metabolic health. The thermogenic program induced by BAIBA may reflect a rapid adaptation of adipose tissue to physical exercise. This connection stresses the beneficial impact of physical exercise on metabolic health.</p> Monica Colitti Federico Boschi Tommaso Montanari ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-11-28 2018-11-28 62 4 10.4081/ejh.2018.2984 Epidermal growth factor-like domain multiple 7 (EGFL7): Expression and possible effect on biliary epithelium growth in cholangiocarcinoma <p>Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is an aggressive biliary tract malignancy with limited treatment options and low survival rates. The intrahepatic subtype comprises two forms: mucin-iCCA and mixed-iCCA. Epidermal growth factor-like domain multiple (EGFL7) is overexpressed in less differentiated liver tumors. The aim of this study was to assess the presence of EGFL7 due to its possible role in the growth of CCA. Hematoxylin and Eosin and periodic acid-Schiff staining were used to evaluate the morphological aspects and glycogen deposition. Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence were performed to identify the presence of EGFL7 both in tumor sections<em> ex vivo</em> and in appropriate cell lines in culture. We found that EGFL7 is expressed in malignant cholangiocytes of mixed-iCCA and absent in mucin-iCCA. In conclusion the expression of EGFL7 might be useful in the classification of CCA subtypes.</p> Caterina L. Mammola Antonella Vetuschi Luigi Pannarale Roberta Sferra Romina Mancinelli ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-11-30 2018-11-30 62 4 10.4081/ejh.2018.2971 Ultrastructural histochemistry in biomedical research: Alive and kicking <p>The high-resolution images provided by the electron microscopy has constituted a limitless source of information in any research field of life and materials science since the early Thirties of the last century. Browsing the scientific literature, electron microscopy was especially popular from the 1970’s to 80’s, whereas during the 90’s, with the advent of innovative molecular techniques, electron microscopy seemed to be downgraded to a subordinate role, as a merely descriptive technique. Ultrastructural histochemistry was crucial to promote the <em>Renaissance</em> of electron microscopy, when it became evident that a precise localization of molecules in the biological environment was necessary to fully understand their functional role. Nowadays, electron microscopy is still irreplaceable for ultrastructural morphology in basic and applied biomedical research, while the application of correlative light and electron microscopy and of refined ultrastructural histochemical techniques gives electron microscopy a central role in functional cell and tissue biology, as a really unique tool for high-resolution molecular biology <em>in situ.</em></p> Manuela Malatesta ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-11-07 2018-11-07 62 4 10.4081/ejh.2018.2990 Mouse oocyte development - Methods and Protocols <p class="Default"><span lang="EN-US">The Springer Protocols series “Methods in Molecular Biology” has published its 1818<sup>th&nbsp;</sup>volume&nbsp;</span><span lang="EN-US">which is entirely devoted to the development of the female gamete: the oocyte. </span></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Manuela Monti ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-09-26 2018-09-26 62 4 10.4081/ejh.2018.2982