European Journal of Histochemistry <p>The <strong>European Journal of Histochemistry&nbsp;</strong>has been an influential cytology journal for over 60 years, publishing research articles on functional cytology and histology in animals and plants. The&nbsp;<strong>European Journal of Histochemistry&nbsp;</strong>offers original research articles investigating on structural and molecular components performed by histochemical and immunohistochemical methods, at light and electron microscopy, cytometry and imaging techniques.</p> <p>Areas of particular interest include cell differentiation, senescence and death, and cell-cell interactions in normal and pathological tissues; attention is also given to articles on newly developed or originally applied histochemical and microscopical techniques.</p> <p>Since its foundation in 1954,&nbsp;the <strong>European Journal of Histochemistry&nbsp;</strong>is the official organ of the Italian Society of Histochemistry.</p> PAGEPress Scientific Publications, Pavia, Italy en-US European Journal of Histochemistry 1121-760X <p><strong>PAGEPress</strong> has chosen to apply the&nbsp;<a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><strong>Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial 4.0 International License</strong></a>&nbsp;(CC BY-NC 4.0) to all manuscripts to be published.<br><br> An Open Access Publication is one that meets the following two conditions:</p> <ol> <li>the author(s) and copyright holder(s) grant(s) to all users a free, irrevocable, worldwide, perpetual right of access to, and a license to copy, use, distribute, transmit and display the work publicly and to make and distribute derivative works, in any digital medium for any responsible purpose, subject to proper attribution of authorship, as well as the right to make small numbers of printed copies for their personal use.</li> <li>a complete version of the work and all supplemental materials, including a copy of the permission as stated above, in a suitable standard electronic format is deposited immediately upon initial publication in at least one online repository that is supported by an academic institution, scholarly society, government agency, or other well-established organization that seeks to enable open access, unrestricted distribution, interoperability, and long-term archiving.</li> </ol> <p>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:</p> <ol> <li>Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li> <li>Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li> <li>Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.</li> </ol> Bradykinin and noradrenaline preconditioning influences level of antioxidant enzymes SOD, CuZn-SOD, Mn-SOD and catalase in the white matter of spinal cord in rabbits after ischemia/reperfusion <p>The aim of present work is to assess the effects of bradykinin (Br) or noradrenaline (Nor) preconditioning to the levels of antioxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutase (SOD), copper, zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD), manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) and catalase in ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) model in the rabbit spinal cord white matter as well as effect on glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and ubiquitin immunoreaction in glial cells. Rabbits were preconditioned by intraperitoneal single dose of Br or Nor 48 h prior to 20 min of ischemia followed by 24 or 48 h of reperfusion. White matter of L3-L6 spinal cord segments was used for comparison of antioxidant enzyme levels in sham control, ischemic groups and four preconditioned groups. The total SOD level in the Br or Nor preconditioned groups after 48 h of reperfusion was increased <em>vs</em> Br or Nor preconditioned groups after 24 h of reperfusion. The comparison among the ischemic group <em>vs </em>Br preconditioned (P&lt;0.05), and Nor preconditioned (P&lt;0.001) groups after 48 h of reperfusion, showed statistically significant decrease of Mn-SOD activity. Tissue catalase level activity was significantly decreased in the Br preconditioned group after 48 h of reperfusion (P&lt;0.05) and Nor preconditioned groups after 24 h of reperfusion (P&lt;0.001) and also after 48 h of reperfusion (P&lt;0.001), in comparison to ischemic group after 48 h of reperfusion. Significantly decreased tissue catalase activity (P&lt;0.05) in both Nor preconditioned groups after 24 or 48 h of reperfusion was measured vs Br preconditioned group after 48 h of reperfusion. According to our results, in the white matter, activation of stress proteins in glial cells, as well as antioxidant enzymes levels, were influenced by pharmacological preconditioning followed by 20 min of ischemia and 24 or 48 h of reperfusion. These changes contribute to ischemic tolerance acquisition and tissue protection from oxidative stress during reperfusion period.</p> Marianna Danková Iveta Domoráková Zuzana Fagová Milan Stebnický Alexandra Kunová Eva Mechírová Copyright (c) 2019 The Author(s) 2019-10-18 2019-10-18 63 4 10.4081/ejh.2019.3045 Immunofluorescence characterization of innervation and nerve-immune cell interactions in mouse lymph nodes <p>The peripheral nervous system communicates specifically with the immune system via local interactions. These interactions include the “hardwiring” of sympathetic/parasympathetic (efferent) and sensory nerves (afferent) to primary (<em>e.g</em>., thymus and bone marrow) and secondary (<em>e.g</em>., lymph node, spleen, and gut-associated lymphoid tissue) lymphoid tissue/organs. To gain a better understanding of this bidirectional interaction/crosstalk between the two systems, we have investigated the distribution of nerve fibres and PNS-immune cell associations <em>in situ</em> in the mouse lymph node by using immunofluorescent staining and confocal microscopy/ three-dimensional reconstruction. Our results demonstrate i) the presence of extensive nerve fibres in all compartments (including B cell follicles) in the mouse lymph node; ii) close contacts/associations of nerve fibres with blood vessels (including high endothelial venules) and lymphatic vessels/sinuses; iii) close contacts/associations of nerve fibres with various subsets of dendritic cells (<em>e.g</em>., B220<sup>+</sup>CD11c<sup>+</sup>, CD4<sup>+</sup>CD11c<sup>+</sup>, CD8a<sup>+</sup>CD11c<sup>+</sup>, and Mac1<sup>+</sup>CD11c<sup>+</sup>), Mac1<sup>+ </sup>macrophages, and B/T lymphocytes. Our novel findings concerning the innervation and nerve-immune cell interactions inside the mouse lymph node should greatly facilitate our understanding of the effects that the peripheral nervous system has on cellular- and humoral-mediated immune responses or <em>vice versa</em> in health and disease.</p> Dailun Hu Philip K. Nicholls Melissa Claus Yongkang Wu Zhongli Shi Wayne K. Greene Bin Ma Copyright (c) 2019 The Author(s) 2019-10-18 2019-10-18 63 4 10.4081/ejh.2019.3059 Increased expression of STAT3 and SOCS3 in placenta from hyperglycemic rats <p>Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is a transcription factor that is activated by interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-10 that generate nearly opposing responses. The suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) is the negative regulator of STAT3 and plays an important role in the negative regulation of the inflammatory process. Evidence has shown the importance of STAT3 and SOCS3 during implantation and normal pregnancy. However, little is known about the relationship of both factors under hyperglycemic condition. The aim of this study was to evaluate the placenta regions exhibiting immunopositivity for STAT3 and SOCS3 in hyperglycemic rats, as well as correlate these proteins with IL-10 and IL-6 levels. It was observed increased expression of STAT3 at the labyrinth (approximately 47% of increase compared to control) and junctional zone (approximately 32% of increase compared to control) from hyperglycemic placentas. Similar results were observed to SOCS3 (approximately 71% -labyrinth- and 53% -junctional zone- of increase compared to control). The levels of IL-10 were augmented at hyperglycemic placentas (approximately 1.5 fold of increase) and they were positively correlated with the increase of STAT3 at the labyrinth and SOCS at junctional zone. Therefore, under hyperglycemic conditions, the relation between STAT3 and SOCS3 was changed, leading to unbalance of the cytokine profile.</p> Vanessa Dela Justina Sebastian San Martin Daniela López-Espíndola Alecsander F. M. Bressan Raiany Alves de Freitas Ana Maria Lopes de Passos Juan Varas Victor V. Lima Fernanda R. Giachini Copyright (c) 2019 The Author(s) 2019-10-30 2019-10-30 63 4 10.4081/ejh.2019.3054 Bleaching melanin in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded melanoma specimens using visible light: a pilot study <p>In fluorescence microscopy, light radiation can be used to bleach fluorescent molecules in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples, in order to increase the ratio between signal of interest and background autofluorescence. We tested if the same principle can be exploited in bright field microscopy to bleach pigmented melanoma FFPE sections together with cell morphology maintenance. After dewaxing and rehydration, serial FFPE sections of a feline diffuse iris melanoma, a canine dermal melanoma, a gray horse dermal melanoma and a swine cutaneous melanoma were irradiated with visible light for 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 days, prior to Hematoxylin and Eosin staining. Complete bleaching was obtained after 1-day treatment in feline and swine melanomas, while 2 and 3 days were required in canine and equine neoplasms, respectively. In all treated samples, cell morphology was maintained. Photo-induced bleaching combined with immunohistochemistry was tested after a 3-day photo-treatment using five different markers. According to the literature, in all samples neoplastic cells stained positive for vimentin, S100 and PNL2, while negative for FVIII and pancytokeratin. In conclusion, visible light can be effectively exploited to bleach pigmented melanoma FFPE sections prior to perform routine histochemical and immunohistochemical stains.</p> Claudio Pigoli Lucia Rita Gibelli Mario Caniatti Luca Moretti Giuseppe Sironi Chiara Giudice Copyright (c) 2019 The Author(s) 2019-10-31 2019-10-31 63 4 10.4081/ejh.2019.3071 Digital PCR - Methods and Protocols <p>Sensitivity, reproducibility, precision and accuracy are recurring words in this book. Indeed, digital PCR (dPCR) represents a major step forward in the quantification of nucleic acids. In this field, for many years it has been used the quantitative PCR (qPCR), a technology that allows a real-time monitoring of DNA amplification which has proved useful for obtaining a relative measurement, but that only indirectly, through the use of reference standards, provides an absolute quantification....</p> Paolo Catarsi Copyright (c) 2019 The Author(s) 2019-10-18 2019-10-18 63 4 10.4081/ejh.2019.3074 Erythrocytes of the Rhesus and Cynomolgus Monkeys <p>The monograph <em>Erythrocytes of the Rhesus and Cynomolgus Monkeys</em> is devoted to the cytologic, quantitative, generative normal and abnormal presentations of the erythrocytes in these two species of primates...</p> Vincenzo Stingo Copyright (c) 2019 The Author(s) 2019-10-22 2019-10-22 63 4 10.4081/ejh.2019.3076