Effects of artificial light with different spectral compositions on refractive development and matrix metalloproteinase 2 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 2 expression in the sclerae of juvenile guinea pigs

Submitted: 31 January 2024
Accepted: 17 May 2024
Published: 27 June 2024
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Artificial light can affect eyeball development and increase myopia rate. Matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) degrades the extracellular matrix, and induces its remodeling, while tissue inhibitor of matrix MMP-2 (TIMP-2) inhibits active MMP-2. The present study aimed to look into how refractive development and the expression of MMP-2 and TIMP-2 in the guinea pigs' remodeled sclerae are affected by artificial light with varying spectral compositions. Three weeks old guinea pigs were randomly assigned to groups exposed to five different types of light: natural light, LED light with a low color temperature, three full spectrum artificial lights, i.e. E light (continuous spectrum in the range of ~390-780 nm), G light (a blue peak at 450 nm and a small valley 480 nm) and F light (continuous spectrum and wavelength of 400 nm below filtered). A-scan ultrasonography was used to measure the axial lengths of their eyes, every two weeks throughout the experiment. Following twelve weeks of exposure to light, the sclerae were observed by optical and transmission electron microscopy. Immunohistochemistry, Western blot and RT-qPCR were used to detect the MMP-2 and TIMP-2 protein and mRNA expression levels in the sclerae. After four, six, eight, ten, and twelve weeks of illumination, the guinea pigs in the LED and G light groups had axial lengths that were considerably longer than the animals in the natural light group while the guinea pigs in the E and F light groups had considerably shorter axial lengths than those in the LED group. Following twelve weeks of exposure to light, the expression of the scleral MMP-2 protein and mRNA were, from low to high, N group, E group, F group, G group, LED group; however, the expression of the scleral TIMP-2 protein and mRNA were, from high to low, N group, E group, F group, G group, LED group. The comparison between groups was statistically significant (p<0.01). Continuous, peaks-free or valleys-free artificial light with full-spectrum preserves remodeling of scleral extracellular matrix in guinea pigs by downregulating MMP-2 and upregulating TIMP-2, controlling eye axis elongation, and inhibiting the onset and progression of myopia.

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Ethics Approval

this study was approved by the Animal Care and Ethics Committee of the Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine

Supporting Agencies

National Nature Science Foundation of China , Jiangsu Health Vocational College

How to Cite

Yuan, J., Li, L., Fan, Y., Xu, X., Huang, X., Shi, J., Zhang, C., Shi, L., & Wang, Y. (2024). Effects of artificial light with different spectral compositions on refractive development and matrix metalloproteinase 2 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 2 expression in the sclerae of juvenile guinea pigs. European Journal of Histochemistry, 68(3). https://doi.org/10.4081/ejh.2024.3982