Epithelial-mesenchymal interactions and lung branching morphogenesis. Role of polyamines and transforming growth factor ß1
AbstractLung branching morphogenesis is a result of epithelial-mesenchymal interactions, which are in turn dependent on extracellular matrix composition and cytokine regulation. Polyamines have recently been demonstrated as able to modify chick embryo skin differentiation. In this work we have examined the effects of putrescine and spermidine during chick embryo lung morphogenesis in organotypic cultures by morphological, histochemical and biochemical examination. To verify the role of polyamines, we used specific inhibitors, such as bis-cyclohexylammonium sulphate and alfa-difluoromethylornithine, and transforming growth factor ß1, an ornithine decarboxylase and polyamine stimulator. Our data show that lung morphogenesis is significantly altered following the induced mesenchymal glycosaminoglycan changes. The increase of mesenchymal glycosaminoglycans is correlated with a stimulation of lung development in the presence of polyamines, and with its inhibition when transforming growth factor ß1 is added to the culture medium. The morphometric data show a uniform increase of both the mesenchyme and epithelial branching with spermidine and putrescine stimulus, whereas the mesenchymal substance alone is significantly increased in apical-median lung sections with transforming growth factor ß1 and transforming growth factor ß1 + spermidine lung cultures. Transforming growth factor ß1 and transforming growth factor ß1 + spermidine confirm the blocking of epithelial branching formations and fibroblast activation, and show that polyamines are unable to prevent the blocking of epithelial cells due to the inhibitory effect of transforming growth factor ß1.
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Copyright (c) 2009 G Stabellini, P Locci, M Calvitti, R Evangelisti, L Marinucci, M Bodo, A Caruso, S Canaider, P Carinci
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