The biocompatibility of bone cements: progress in methodological approach

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Carlo Dall'Oca
Tommaso Maluta
Gian Mario Micheloni
Matteo Cengarle
Giampaolo Morbioli
Paolo Bernardi
Andrea Sbarbati
Daniele Degl'Innocenti *
Franco Lavini
Bruno Magnan
(*) Corresponding Author:
Daniele Degl'Innocenti | d.d.i@libero.it

Abstract

The ideal bone graft substitute should have certain properties and there are many studies dealing with mixture of polymethylmetacrilate (PMMA) and β-tricalciumphospate (β-TCP) presenting the best characteristics of both. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), for ultra-structural data, resulted a very reliable in vivo model to better understand the bioactivity of a cement and to properly evaluate its suitability for a particular purpose. The present study aims to further improve the knowledge on osteointegration development, using both parameters obtained with the Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM) and focused histological examination. Two hybrid bone graft substitute were designed among ceramic and polymer-based bone graft substitutes. Based on β-TCP granules sizes, they were created with theoretical different osteoconductive properties. An acrylic standard cement was chosen as control. Cements were implanted in twelve New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits, which were sacrificed at 1, 2, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after cement implantation. Histological samples were prepared with an infiltration process of LR white resin and then specimens were studied by X-rays, histology and Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM). Comparing the resulting data, it was possible to follow osteointegration’s various developments resulting from different sizes of β-TCP granules. In this paper, we show that this evaluation process, together with ESEM, provides further important information that allows to follow any osteointegration at every stage of develop.


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Author Biographies

Carlo Dall'Oca, University of Verona

Department of Surgical, Dentistry and Maternal-Infantile Sciences. Operating Unit of orthopedics. Researcher.

Tommaso Maluta, University of Verona

Operating Complex Unit of Orthopedics and Traumatology B, Manager.

Gian Mario Micheloni, University of Verona

Department of Surgical, Dentistry and Maternal-Infantile Sciences. Operating Unit of orthopedics. Trainee.

Giampaolo Morbioli, University of Verona

CIRSAL - Centro Interdipartimentale per la Ricerca Scientifica su Animali da Laboratorio (Interdepartmental Center of Scientific Research on Laboratory Animals),

Paolo Bernardi, University of Verona

Department of Neuroscience, Biomedicine and Movement. Human Anatomy and Histology Section. Technical-administrative staff

Andrea Sbarbati, Verona University of Verona

Department of Neuroscience, Biomedicine and Movement. Human Anatomy and Histology Section. Professor. Director.

Daniele Degl'Innocenti, University of Verona

Department of Neuroscience, Biomedicine and Movement. Human Anatomy and Histology Section. Grantholder researcher

Franco Lavini, University of Verona

Department of Surgical, Dentistry and Maternal-Infantile Sciences. Operating Unit of orthopedics. Trainee.

Bruno Magnan, University of Verona

Department of Surgical, Dentistry and Maternal-Infantile Sciences. Operating Unit of orthopedics. Associate professor. Director