The vasotocinergic system in the hypothalamus and limbic region of the budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus)


We report a morphological and biochemical analysis on the presence, distribution and quantification of vasotocin in the hypothalamus and limbic region of the budgerigar Melopsittacus undulatus, using immunohistochemistry on serial sections and competitive enzyme linked immunoadsorbent assay measurements on tissue extracts. Analysis of the sections showed large vasotocin-immunoreactive neurons in three main regions of the diencephalon, of both male and female specimens. Vasotocinergic cell bodies were located in the ventral and lateral areas of the hypothalamus, dorsal to the lateral thalamus and medial to the nucleus geniculatus lateralis. Immunoreactive neurons were placed also periventricularly, close to the walls of the third ventricle, at the level of the magnocellular paraventricular nucleus.Well evident bundles of immunoreactive fibers were placed ventral to the anterior commissure in the same regions of the hypothalamus and thalamus where vasotocinergic perikarya are localized. Fibers were identified close to the third ventricle, and in the lateral hypothalamic area along the lateral forebrain bundle. In contrast to what reported for other oscine and non-oscine avian species, we were not able to identify immunopositive neurons in any region above the anterior commissure, or detect relevant differences on the distribution of the vasotocin immmunoreactivity between sexes. Competitive enzyme linked immunoadsorption assay and image analysis of the extension of immunoreactivity in the tissue sections were consistent with the qualitative observations and indicated that there is no statistically significant dimorphism in the content of vasotocin or in the location and distribution of vasotocinergic elements in the investigated areas of male and female parrot brains.



PlumX Metrics


Download data is not yet available.
Original Papers
  • Abstract views: 219

  • PDF: 401
How to Cite
Fabris, C., Ballarin, C., Massa, R., Granato, A., Fabiani, O., Panzica, G., & Cozzi, B. (2009). The vasotocinergic system in the hypothalamus and limbic region of the budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus). European Journal of Histochemistry, 48(4), 367-372.