RANK/RANKL/OPG signaling pathways in necrotic jaw bone from bisphosphonate-treated subjects

Submitted: 9 October 2014
Accepted: 18 December 2014
Published: 3 February 2015
Abstract Views: 1612
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Authors

Osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) is a chronic complication affecting long-term bisphosphonate-treated subjects, recognized by non-healing exposed bone in the maxillofacial region. The pathophysiological mechanism underlying ONJ has not been fully elucidated. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of RANK/RANKL/OPG signaling pathway and, in parallel, to evaluate angiogenic and matrix mineralization processes in jaw bone necrotic samples obtained from bisphosphonate-treated subjects with established ONJ. Necrotic bone samples and native bone samples were processed for Light and Field Emission in Lens Scanning Electron Microscope (FEISEM) analyses, for Real-Time RT-PCR to evaluate the gene expression of TNFRSF11A (RANK), TNFSF11 (RANKL), and TNFSF11B (OPG) and for immunohistochemical analyses of VEGF and BSP expression. Morphological analyses performed by Light microscope and FEISEM show empty osteocytic lacunae and alteration of lamellar organization with degradation of the mineralized bone matrix in necrotic bone samples. A significant increase in TNFRSF11A, TNFSF11, TRAF6 and NFAT2 gene expression, and a reduction of TNFSF11B gene transcription level compared is also showed in necrotic bone compared to control samples. No significant difference of VEGF expression is evidenced, while lower BSP expression in necrotic bone compared to healthy samples is found. Even if the pathogenesis of bisphosphonate-associated ONJ remains unknown, a link between oral pathogens and its development seems to exist. We suppose lipopolysaccharide produced by bacteria colonizing and infecting necrotic bone and the surrounding viable area could trigger RANK/RANKL/OPG signaling pathway and, in this context, osteoclasts activation could be considered as a protective strategy carried out by the host bone tissue to delimitate the necrotic area and to counteract infection.

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Citations

C. Di Nisio, University of Chieti "G. d'Annunzio"
Department of Pharmacy
V.L. Zizzari, University of Chieti "G. d'Annunzio"
Department of Pharmacy
S. Zara, University of Chieti "G. d'Annunzio"
Department of Pharmacy
M. Falconi, University of Bologna

Department of Biomedical and NeuroMotor Sciences (DiBiNeM)

G. Teti, University of Bologna
Department of Biomedical and NeuroMotor Sciences (DiBiNeM)
G. Tetè, University of Chieti "G. d'Annunzio"
Department of Pharmacy
A. Cataldi, University of Chieti "G. d'Annunzio"
Department of Pharmacy

How to Cite

Di Nisio, C., Zizzari, V., Zara, S., Falconi, M., Teti, G., Tetè, G., Nori, A., Zavaglia, V., & Cataldi, A. (2015). RANK/RANKL/OPG signaling pathways in necrotic jaw bone from bisphosphonate-treated subjects. European Journal of Histochemistry, 59(1). https://doi.org/10.4081/ejh.2015.2455