Specific association of growth-associated protein 43 with calcium release units in skeletal muscles of lower vertebrates

  • G.A. Caprara University G. d'Annunzio of Chieti-Pescara, Italy.
  • S. Perni University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, United States.
  • C. Morabito University G. d'Annunzio of Chieti-Pescara, Italy.
  • M.A. Mariggiò University G. d'Annunzio of Chieti-Pescara, Italy.
  • S. Guarnieri | guarnie@unich.it University G. d'Annunzio of Chieti-Pescara, Italy.

Abstract

Growth-associated protein 43 (GAP43), is a strictly conserved protein among vertebrates implicated in neuronal development and neurite branching. Since GAP43 structure contains a calmodulin-binding domain, this protein is able to bind calmodulin and gather it nearby membrane network, thus regulating cytosolic calcium and consequently calcium-dependent intracellular events. Even if for many years GAP43 has been considered a neuronal-specific protein, evidence from different laboratories described its presence in myoblasts, myotubes and adult skeletal muscle fibers. Data from our laboratory showed that GAP43 is localized between calcium release units (CRUs) and mitochondria in mammalian skeletal muscle suggesting that, also in skeletal muscle, this protein can be a key player in calcium/calmodulin homeostasis. However, the previous studies could not clearly distinguish between a mitochondrion- or a triad-related positioning of GAP43. To solve this question, the expression and localization of GAP43 was studied in skeletal muscle of Xenopus and Zebrafish known to have triads located at the level of the Z-lines and mitochondria not closely associated with them. Western blotting and immunostaining experiments revealed the expression of GAP43 also in skeletal muscle of lower vertebrates (like amphibians and fishes), and that the protein is localized closely to the triad junction. Once more, these results and GAP43 structural features, support an involvement of the protein in the dynamic intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis, a common conserved role among the different species.

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Author Biographies

G.A. Caprara, University G. d'Annunzio of Chieti-Pescara

Dip. Neuroscienze, Imaging e Scienze Cliniche

PhD student

S. Perni, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine

Department of Cell and Developmental Biology

Post Doc

C. Morabito, University G. d'Annunzio of Chieti-Pescara

Dip. Neuroscienze, Imaging e Scienze Cliniche

Post Doc

M.A. Mariggiò, University G. d'Annunzio of Chieti-Pescara

Dip. Neuroscienze, Imaging e Scienze Cliniche

Associate professor

S. Guarnieri, University G. d'Annunzio of Chieti-Pescara
Dip. Neuroscienze, Imaging e Scienze Cliniche
 Researcher
Published
2014-12-05
Section
Brief Reports
Keywords:
GAP43, RyR, skeletal muscle, Xenopus, Zebrafish.
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How to Cite
Caprara, G., Perni, S., Morabito, C., MariggiòM., & Guarnieri, S. (2014). Specific association of growth-associated protein 43 with calcium release units in skeletal muscles of lower vertebrates. European Journal of Histochemistry, 58(4). https://doi.org/10.4081/ejh.2014.2453